» Employment FAQs for Prospective Students

Deciding to attend law school is a life-impacting decision. A legal education is costly and requires a commitment to a three-year full-time program or a four-year part-time program. The economy, globalization, and technology have impacted, and will continue to impact, the way legal services are delivered and the legal job market. We are committed to providing as much information as possible to help prospective students become informed consumers in their decision-making process. We hope that the following FAQs will provide helpful insights, clarify some uncertainties, and enable you to weigh the risks and rewards of investing in a JD degree. Additionally, we encourage you to contact Fowler School of Law’s Career Services Office directly to ask any questions you may have.


+ - How are law school employment statistics collected?

The career services office of a law school surveys each member of the most recent graduating class to obtain employment data. Surveys are conducted at graduation and later again in the same year, typically after bar results are published in the fall and continuing into March of the following year to determine where graduates are working as of March 15, 10 months after graduation.1 The data is generally collected through electronic surveys and through individual exit interviews, phone calls, and emails. Employment information is confidential and protected by federal privacy laws. Graduates volunteer their information, and though they are strongly encouraged to provide complete employment data for the purposes of assisting prospective students and measuring employment outcomes, which law schools are required to report to the American Bar Association, graduates cannot be compelled to provide private employment data. Therefore, employment data published by any law school typically will be incomplete to some degree.

1 To be counted as employed, according to National Association of Law Placement (NALP), a graduate must be on the job as of March 15. If a graduate receives and accepts a job offer by March 15, but has not undertaken the duties of the position, that graduate will not be counted as employed. For example, if a graduate accepted an offer for an associate position on March 10, but did not start on the job until March 16, that graduate would count as “unemployed” for reporting purposes.

+ - To which nationally recognized organizations do law schools report employment data?

  • National Association of Law Placement (NALP)
  • American Bar Association (ABA)
  • U.S. News and World Report
  • Princeton Review

Although law schools may report employment data to other organizations the foregoing list provides a representative list of reporting organizations.

Employment data is submitted annually each spring to the ABA, NALP and The Princeton Review. Data is reported to U.S News & World Report annually in the fall. For example, the rankings which were published by U.S. News & World Report in March 2018 were the statistics for the Class of 2016, which were reported in 2017 to NALP, the ABA, and U.S. News & World ReportEmployment Statistics for Class of 2017 »

+ - When does employment information become available for a given class year?

When you are reviewing employment data produced by different organizations, note the differing reporting periods published by these organizations and clarify which class year’s data is being published as you make comparisons.

An ABA-accredited law school must publish its employment statistics on the school’s website by April 15 for the last graduating class after its 10-months-out employment figures become finalized (as of March 15 the year following graduation). Fowler School of Law’s most recent employment statistics »

U.S. News & World Report historically lags in reporting employment data. For example, Class of 2016 employment data was submitted to U.S. News in Fall 2017, but it was not published until March 2018. 

May 2017

Mar. 2018

Apr. 2018

May 2018

Oct. 2018

Mar. 2019

Law School Class Graduates

Law Schools Report Employment Stats

Law Schools Publish Stats on School Websites per ABA requirement

ABA Publishes Data

Schools Report Employment for Class of 2017 to U.S. News

U.S. News Publishes Data for Class of 2017


+ - Do these organizations use the same definitions and formulas in defining their terms and in interpreting employment data?

Organizations often define terms differently and may use differing formulas to calculate and interpret employment data. Additionally, organizations may redefine categories over time or change their new formulas. Be aware of these differences as you analyze employment data from various sources.

For instance, U.S. News and World Report provides multiple examples of changes in formula for calculating employment statistics: For the Class of 2016, only graduates who were employed in full-time, permanent, bar-license-required or JD-advantage positions were given “full weight” in the employment calculation. Consequently, when you see an employment percentage listed for a law school in the rankings, understand that the “employed” percentage does not take into full consideration graduates who were working in full-time positions with a fixed or set end date, graduates working in part-time positions, graduates working in a professional job that was not advantaged by a JD degree, or any graduates working in a non-professional capacity. U.S News has not published what weight was given to other types of post-graduate employment (See further explanation by U.S. News here). 

Depending on which employment data sources you are reviewing for a particular law school, these differing definitions may account for some minor discrepancies in the published statistics for law schools.

+ - How do prospective students determine “under-employment” statistics for a law school?

Once data is published by law schools and the various reporting organizations, other organizations or individuals are free to review and interpret the data in different ways. Some organizations will consider recent graduates in part-time jobs or those enrolled in advanced degree programs, such as a master’s degree in law (LL.M.), as “under-employed.” However, that particular graduate may not consider herself “under-employed” if obtaining an advanced degree is perceived as key to achieving her ultimate employment goal or increasing her competitiveness as a candidate. Likewise, sometimes accepting a part-time job can be a strategic first step in attaining full-time legal employment in a desired practice area.

+ - Is it better to have a job that requires a bar license rather than a position defined as “JD Advantage” by NALP or the ABA?

It depends on your professional goals. Though most students come to law school intending to practice law, some plan -- or decide later -- to use their legal education to work in non-lawyer positions in business, government or public interest, rather than in practice, and find that their legal education helps them to hone analytical and problem-solving skills that are also valued by these employers. Some students wish to pursue and obtain regulatory and compliance work or other legally-related areas that require a JD degree, but not a bar license. These types of jobs are classified as “JD Advantage” positions, which means that the employer sought a candidate with a JD degree, but the job itself does not require a bar license. Some examples of “JD Advantage” jobs are tax associate, compliance officer, accountant, talent/sports agent, law school administrator, human resources manager, and corporate contracts administrator. For some graduates, these positions may represent “dream jobs,” and they may not agree that it was better for them to have a position requiring a bar license. 

+ - Is there value in working at a part-time job or doing volunteer work after graduating law school?

Yes. Gaining meaningful experience through part-time and volunteer work after graduation helps recent graduates to acquire skills and knowledge while building their resumes and expanding their network of contacts.

+ - Is pursuing an LL.M. degree following graduation a good idea?

The decision to complete a legal master’s degree or other advanced degree should fit in with the particular graduate’s employment goals; it is not advised as a strategy to wait out the employment market. In our experience, Tax LL.M. degrees may provide an employment advantage, and we have also seen graduates of our LL.M. in Trial Advocacy advantaged by their advanced degrees. As an example, some of our graduates who pursued LL.M. degrees immediately following graduation are now employed with major accounting firms.

+ - When do most legal employers recruit for post-graduate positions?

As you evaluate employment data, it is important to know something about how and when a variety of legal employers recruit because there are distinct differences in the timing of recruitment among these employers. Law schools whose graduates are hired in greater numbers by large law firms will be advantaged in terms of employment statistics at graduation and at 10-months-out because of the way in which large firms recruit. Other types of legal employers recruit differently and typically later. Law schools that have a greater number of students going into smaller firms and the public sector will typically not show as many graduates employed at graduation and 10-months-out because of the recruitment timing practiced by these types of employers.

Small and Mid-Size Law Firms:  The majority of attorneys in the United States work in small or mid-size firms. Most small and mid-size law firms typically do not have summer associate programs and often do not extend permanent post-graduate attorney job offers before a student’s graduation. Small firms hire when they have a need or when they are closer in time to an anticipated recruitment so that they can better assess their growth trajectory. Some small firms hiring associates may require that a recent graduate be admitted to the bar before applying for an attorney position or may hire a post-bar law clerk with a permanent attorney offer contingent upon bar passage.

Large Law Firms (may be defined as 101+ attorneys firm-wide): These firms recruit the majority of their entry-level attorneys through “summer associate” programs. Firms will hire a certain number of second-year law students to work for them during a student’s second summer in law school. If the summer associate performs well, then a permanent job offer may be extended at the end of that summer. If the student accepts the offer, he or she would start work at the firm following graduation and after sitting for the bar examination. Because of the size of their firms, large law firms typically have had the ability to project two years in advance approximately how many attorneys they will need to recruit in a given year. This recruitment pattern is not typical for most other legal employers. The majority of legal employers recruit closer in time to when they can better project their need and hiring budget. 

Government Agencies (federal, state, and local):  Government recruitment timelines vary depending on the type of position. A “JD Advantage” position will not require that an applicant obtain a bar license before applying, so a recent graduate would be able to apply sooner for that type of position. For many government attorney positions, however, a graduate must wait until obtaining a bar license before applying. For example, in some cases, a graduate from the Class of 2018 would not be able to apply for open deputy district attorney positions until after receiving positive bar results in November 2018.

Public Interest/Non-Profit Employers:  Similar to government employers, most public interest employers do not give permanent job offers until candidates have obtained their bar licenses and may expect that candidates will demonstrate their commitment to the organization by volunteering before obtaining their bar licenses.

+ - How soon should I start thinking about legal employment?

As you consider law school, you should begin thinking about what you would do with a law degree. The end game of law school is to get a job. Examine why you think you want to be a lawyer and take the time to learn what it is that lawyers do so that you can determine if it is a good fit for you. Becoming an attorney can offer unique and wonderful rewards, but not everyone should be an attorney. Law school is a challenging and expensive undertaking. We encourage you to carefully weigh the costs and benefits and to educate yourself so that you have realistic expectations about the nature and range of employment options and starting salaries.

If you decide to attend law school, you will need to focus on both academic achievement and career and professional development concurrently. Fowler Law students are encouraged to build a network of contacts, get practical work experience, and engage with our Career Services Office early in their education to take advantage of all employment resources and opportunities. Obtaining meaningful legal work experience early in your legal education will help you to identify the type of law practice and legal setting that will be the right fit for you. Once you know what interests you, you will become a more focused and effective job candidate and will be able to make strategic choices about coursework and other experiences you want to have in law school, which will further your career goals.

+ - What can I expect to earn as a new attorney?

Salaries vary depending on what type of an attorney you are and where you work. According to an ABA report, job satisfaction for attorneys is highest in smaller firms and lowest in large firms. Most law school graduates, including the majority of Fowler Law graduates, start their careers and continue to practice in small law firms of 1-10 attorneys. NALP reports the average starting salary of a law school graduate from the Class of 2015 who went to work in a firm of 2-10 attorneys had a median starting salary of $53,000.

Large law firm associates have the highest starting salaries of most legal employers, and salaries can range from approximately $125,000 to $180,000 for an entry-level attorney. To support such high starting salaries for new attorneys, firms will typically require that associates work long hours to meet billable requirements.

Recent graduates who become government attorneys also will not typically start out making six-figure annual salaries. As an example, most Southern California district attorney offices offer starting salaries in the $60,000-$69,000 range. For the Class of 2015, NALP reported that the national median starting salaries for public interest attorneys was $46,500. Though public interest attorneys are usually the lowest paid attorneys, they have historically reported the greatest job satisfaction. Read an article related to public service attorneys and their levels of happiness and satisfaction. For additional starting salary information, please contact our Career Services Office and refer to the Chapman employment statistics.

+ - How does bar pass success affect a graduate’s employment prospects?

Because many attorney positions will require that applicants have a bar license before applying, it is critical to do all that you can to prepare for and pass the bar examination the first time. In our experience, graduates who fail the July bar on their first attempt often delay seeking full-time employment until after they have taken the February bar, and again will be faced with a more limited pool of jobs while they are waiting for their bar results. A significant percentage of graduates who are unemployed 10 months after graduation prefer not to work while studying to retake the bar examination, or, if they passed the California bar examination on their first attempt, they may be sitting for a bar examination in another state and, likewise, are choosing to delay their job search to focus on their studies.  

At Fowler Law, we understand how important it is to succeed on the bar examination. We have an academic success program and effective early bar prep and supplemental bar programs to ensure that our graduates are well prepared for the bar examination. View more about Fowler School of Law’s bar exam preparation.

+ - What determines a person’s ultimate success practicing law?

Statistics show that certain characteristics are more often the predictor of long-term success. These characteristics include the ability to relate well with people, adaptability, a strong work ethic, and positive attitude – indeed, the very characteristics Fowler School of Law seeks in prospective students. As an attorney, clients are paying not only for your legal expertise, but your good judgment and professionalism. Who you are as a professional matters to your ultimate success in law, and that is something that you control in any job market. 

+ - What do Fowler School of Law graduates have to offer employers?

As a relatively young law school, the Fowler School of Law is known for being energetic, adaptable, and innovative. Not surprisingly, our students and graduates are equipped both by training and attitude to succeed. We have adapted to the changing legal market by emphasizing practical skills training, enhancing experiential coursework, and expanding our externship program. Over the last several years, we have significantly increased the size of our fall On-Campus Interview and Resume Collection Program to more than 100 employers, and we are working hard to continue growing the program.  Fowler Law students understand that success is earned, and they offer employers not only strong legal research and writing skills, but dedication, passion for their work, and a strong work ethic. As employers strive to thrive, they will need highly qualified attorneys who have the skills, drive, innovation, and work ethic to add value to their firms and organizations.

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