The below Resources are provided by Teung F. Chin, Ph.D., USDA Office of Pest Management Policy
1. Global use of QPS methyl bromide for 2014 and earlier years by country.
2. APHIS PPQ import and export use of QPS methyl bromide
United States Quarantine and Preshipment Use of Methyl Bromide, 2013
-Robert M. Baca, Ph.D.
Slide 7 for 2013 lists imported cut flowers & greenery, propagative plant material
Slide 8 lists exported logs
United States QPS Use of Methyl Bromide, 2012
-Robert M. Baca
Slide 16 for 2012 imports, lists grapes, asparagus, bamboo, kiwi, yam, pineapple, cut flowers & greenery, stone/tile, and fresh herbs.
QPS Usage of Methyl Bromide, 2011
-Robert M. Baca, Ph.D.
Slide 7 lists cut flowers and greenery, propagative plant material as well as “fruits & vegetables” generally
Slide 9 lists the major import fumigations for 2011: grapes, asparagus, pineapple, yam, kiwi, lemon, orange and chestnut
3. UN technical panel report on QPS Uses
UNEP 2014 Report of the Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee - 2014 Assessment
TABLE 4- 2: Main Categories of MB Use For QPS Purposes
- Commodities Bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes (intended for planting)
- Cut flowers and branches (including foliage)
- Fresh fruit and vegetables
- Grain, cereals and oil seeds for consumption including rice (not intended for planting)
- Dried foodstuffs (including herbs, dried fruit, coffee, cocoa)
- Nursery stock (plants intended for planting other than seed), and associated soil and other growing media
- Seeds (intended for planting)
- Soil and other growing media as a commodity, including soil exports and soil associated with living material such as nursery stock*
- Wood packaging materials
- Wood (including sawn wood and wood chips)
- Whole logs (with or without bark)
- Hay, straw, thatch grass, dried animal fodder (other than grains and cereals listed above)
- Cotton and other fibre crops and products
- Tree nuts (e.g. almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts)
- Structures and equipment Buildings with quarantine pests (including elevators, dwellings, factories, storage facilities)
- Equipment (including used machinery and vehicles) and empty shipping containers and reused packaging
- Soil as agricultural land*
- Pre-plant and disinfestation fumigation of agricultural land*
- Miscellaneous small volume uses
- Personal effects, furniture, air* and watercraft*, artifacts, hides, fur and skins
Source: IPPC (2008) list of categories; *Not on IPPC (2008) list4. NOAA (2015 & 2012) & EPA (1995) Reports on methyl bromide in the atmosphereMethyl Bromide in the Atmosphere – A Scientific Overview and Update 2015
-Steve Montzka, James Butler, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
“From the 2014 WMO Ozone Assessment:
- Total column ozone has remained relatively unchanged since 2000 (60°S to 60°N average) after declines of about 2.5% during the 1980s and early 1990s. There are indications of a small increase in recent years, as expected.
- Ozone in the upper stratosphere has clearly increased recently. This increase is attributed to both declining ODS abundances and upper stratospheric cooling from increases in carbon dioxide.”
Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere – A Scientific Overview and Update, 2012
James Butler, Steve Montzka
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
“Emerging Science Studying ocean fluxes while atmospheric concentrations decrease: same ocean regions sampled in 1994 and 2010
- the NET source from ocean has increased!”EPA “Questions & Answers on METHYL BROMIDE- 1995”
Q: How much methyl bromide is produced by human activities, as compared to U.S. natural sources?
A: The 1994 Science Assessment reports that methyl bromide is produced by:
1) agriculture: 20-60 kilotons/year,
2) biomass burning: 10-50 kt/yr,
3) leaded gasoline burning: 0.5-22 kt/yr,and
4) oceans: 0-40 kt/yr (Butler, 1995).5. EPA and Services Biological Evaluation for malathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon.
“Implementing NAS Report Recommendations on Ecological Risk Assessment for Endangered and Threatened Species”
EPA, in conjunction with FWS, NMFS, and USDA, has begun developing draft Biological Evaluations (BEs) in response to the NAS report. In December 2015, OPP is providing/making publicly available several documents associated with the Biological Evaluations (BEs) for the three pilot chemicals: chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion. The following documents will be available for each of the three pilot chemicals: problem formulation, fate and effects characterizations as well as the appendices and a number of provisional models. In April 2016, EPA will release the effects determination for each of the three pilot chemicals and open the docket for public comment. The information provided for each chemical will be on a separate page:
- Provisional models