Chapman University, founded in 1861, is an independent, comprehensive mid–sized private institution dedicated to providing a solid foundation of knowledge that enables its graduates to become fully educated persons. The University is comprised of the George L. Argyros School of Business and Economics, College of Educational Studies, Lawrence and Kristina Dodge College of Film and Media Arts, Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Wilkinson College of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, Dale E. Fowler School of Law, College of Performing Arts, School of Pharmacy and Schmid College of Science and Technology.
Chapman is recognized for its blend of professional programs, sciences and liberal arts, as well as its distinguished faculty, innovative programs and personalized attention to students. The University strives to develop in students the ability to think clearly, communicate effectively, explore issues from contrasting points of view, value human and cultural diversity and make informed ethical judgments in an increasingly complex world.
Chapman University traces its roots back more than a century and a half to Hesperian College, which opened on the same day that Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the sixteenth U.S. president in 1861. Hesperian and several other institutions later merged with California Christian College in Los Angeles. In 1934 the institution was renamed in recognition of its most generous benefactor, C.C. Chapman, successful real estate investor, church leader, politician and citrus grower. Chapman College moved to the city of Orange in 1954. In September of 1991 the college became Chapman University, further strengthening its commitment to international education and an innovative undergraduate curriculum and graduate programs.
The University offers more than 40 fields of undergraduate study as well as graduate degree programs and credential programs for educators.
Chapman's undergraduate programs are founded in the liberal arts. The University offers B.A., B.S., B.F.A. and B.M. degrees. As defined in the general education program, the University is dedicated to offering a distinctive education that encourages students to see and appreciate the linkages between their majors and the general education program. See index listing for undergraduate programs.
More information about Chapman's graduate programs can be found in the Graduate Catalog available from the Office of Admission, Argyros Forum, Room 304, One University Drive, Orange, CA 92866, (714) 997–6786.
Information about courses through Brandman University is available in the Brandman University catalog available from the Office of Admission, 16355 Laguna Canyon Road, Irvine, CA 92618, (800) 746–0082.
The General Education program reflects the University's mission to provide its students with a personalized education of distinction that leads to inquiring, ethical and productive lives as global citizens. The program is thus flexible, but enables all students to develop ability in critical inquiry, gain breadth and depth of knowledge, integrate knowledge within and across disciplines, cultivate ethical awareness in learning and practice, engage in experiential learning as thoughtful, principled citizens and become independent thinkers able to sustain a lifelong desire for intellectual growth.
Students may share up to nine credits between General Education and their major and six credits between General Education and their minor. Courses may not double–count in General Education categories; students may use a course to satisfy one inquiry or exploration category only.
The Chapman General Education Plan
For a current list of courses in each General Education category, visit http://www.chapman.edu/academics/general-education/index.aspx.
A wide variety of study and research opportunities are available through Chapman's academic and research centers. These include the A. Gary Anderson Center for Economic Research, the Albert Schweitzer Institute, the Barry and Phyllis Rodgers Center for Holocaust Education, the C. Larry Hoag Center for Real Estate and Finance, the Center for American War Letters, the Center for Demographics and Public Policy, the Center for Educational and Social Equity, the Center for Global Trade and Development, the Center for Media and Public Affairs, the Center of Excellence in Earth Systems Modeling and Observations, the Chapman Institute for Quantum Studies, the Economic Science Institute, the Institute for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, the Institute for the Study of Media and the Public Interest, the Institute for the Study of Religion, Economics and Society, the John Fowles Center for Creative Writing, the Military Law and Policy Institute, the Ralph W. Leatherby Center for Entrepreneurship and Business Ethics and the Walter Schmid Center for International Business. Students may work with faculty on specific research projects as well as participate in special programs including guest lectures, film screenings, panels and seminars.
The Chapman University Honors program is a broad interdisciplinary course of study based on great books and events from cultures around the world. Students and faculty concentrate on mutually critical exchanges between the classics of human cultures and the contemporary world. The goal of these dialogical exchanges is collaborative and intentional learning in which students and faculty together connect enduring and emerging ideas, drawing on shared texts, lectures, seminar discussions and cultural experiences.
Students in this university–wide program are required to complete a minimum of 25 credits. They select from a variety of courses in three main categories (human sciences, natural sciences and social sciences). During their first year in the program, honors students enroll in the one credit course, Honors Forum, and complete the Honors program with the three credit course, Honors Capstone.
Completion of the program satisfies the GE Inter/Multidisciplinary Cluster; select courses may also satisfy major, minor, other GE and/or elective requirements.
Applicants typically have first–rate GPAs and highly competitive SAT and ACT scores. Other criteria may include outstanding leadership and/or creative achievement, community involvement and a range of interests and experiences. The program best serves students who approach their education in a mature and responsible manner.
Acceptance to the program is limited. Students must submit a separate application for admission to the Honors program, in addition to applying for admission to the University. Students already at Chapman may also apply for admission, prior to accumulating 60 credits. Transfer students who come to Chapman after completing 60 credits and are accepted into the program are required to complete 16 credits, including the one credit course, Honors Forum, at least one course from each of the three main categories and complete the Honors program with the three credit course, Honors Capstone. Applications are available online at www.chapman.edu/academics/honors.
The more than 460 full–time and 450 adjunct faculty represent an outstanding range of intellectual interests, research endeavors and creative activities. They include noted researchers in the sciences and social sciences, gifted artists, prolific writers, talented film makers and widely published and recognized scholars.
As a community, the faculty is comprised of people who connect active scholarship and creative activity with teaching and learning as a bridge between research and practice. Their research and creative work informs both their teaching and their lives in ways that enable students to see the value of a commitment to lifelong learning. Some 90 percent hold terminal degrees and 47 percent are tenured. Full–time faculty teach two to three courses a semester.
The 2015–16 student body population was 8,305, 6,363 of whom were undergraduate. Almost half of the undergraduate students live in university housing. Chapman welcomes students from around the country and the world. Over 60 countries are represented among Chapman's international student body. Among first year students 40 percent come from outside California.
Enrollment has steadily grown since the early 1990s. The average SAT score of new freshmen has increased every year during that period. Chapman upholds its tradition of providing personalized education to students by maintaining a faculty to student ratio of 1:14.
Student life at Chapman is educationally stimulating and diverse. Students come from varied economic, social, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Yet because of Chapman’s size, opportunities for involvement are extended to all students through an active student government, service and social fraternities and sororities, religious organizations, intercollegiate and intramural athletics, student publications, numerous social and cultural events and student productions in drama, music, film and dance.
Chapman's long and distinguished heritage in intercollegiate sports includes six NCAA national championships in baseball, tennis and softball. Students participate in NCAA Division III athletics, a non–scholarship division. Men's sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, crew (club sport), golf, football, golf, ice hockey (club sport), lacrosse (club sport), soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field and water polo. Women's sports include basketball, cross country, crew (club sport), lacrosse, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball and water polo. Approximately 20 percent of Chapman's student body participates in intercollegiate athletics, club sports and intramurals. Chapman University is a member of the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.
Student athletes as well as all students and members of the Chapman community who wish to keep physically fit have access to the facilities in the award–winning and uniquely designed Erin J. Lastinger Athletics Complex (which opened in August 2008). The facility includes the fully rebuilt 1,923–seat Ernie Chapman Stadium and Holly and David Wilson Field, constructed atop a 900 capacity underground parking facility. The Allred Aquatics Center and Olympic Pool features the 600–seat Frank E. and Mary Ann O'Bryan Aquatics Stadium and houses Chapman's aquatics programs. The Lastinger Complex earned the "Facility of Merit" award at the Athletic Business Conference in 2010. For more information and hours of operation, please visit www.chapmanathletics.com/facilities/index.
The Chapman University alumni network encompasses more than 40,000 undergraduate and graduate alumni across the globe. Chapman is committed to keeping alumni connected to their alma mater and supporting their personal and professional endeavors through programs, benefits and services. All graduates automatically become members of the Chapman University Alumni Association. Through the Alumni Association, Chapman graduates have access to career resources and networking opportunities, exclusive activities and events, young alumni programs, library access and many other discounts and resources. Alumni also have opportunities throughout the year to connect with current students though mentoring, volunteering, sharing career advice, serving on advisory boards or speaking panels, offering internship/employment opportunities and participating in campus traditions such as the Chapman Family Homecoming Celebration, Greek Skit Night and more. Chapman University alumni and future alumni are encouraged to "Think Chapman First" and stay connected with passion and pride.
Prominent Chapman alumni include the former U.S. Ambassador to Spain and philanthropist George L. Argyros ’59; the Honorable Loretta Sanchez ’82, member of Congress; the Honorable David Bonior ’72, former member of Congress and House Minority Whip; Jose Gomez ’75, member of the Panamanian National Assembly; television and film producers John Copeland ’73 and John David Currey ’98; cinematographer Gene Jackson ’70; television sports analyst and former UCLA basketball coach Steve Lavin ’88; major league baseball executive Gordon Blakeley ’76; former major league baseball stars Gary Lucas ’76, Tim Flannery ’79, Marty Castillo ’79 and Randy Jones ’72; Tony Award nominee and star of Broadway’s "Showboat," Michel Bell ’68; Tony Award winning producer of "Memphis," Tim Kashani '08; and resident tenor at the Staatsoper–Vienna, John Nuzzo ’91.
To learn more about the Alumni Association and explore opportunities to connect with Chapman’s alumni network, find us on Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter or visit us online at www.chapman.edu/alumni.
Chapman's roots are firmly grounded in its historic covenant with our founders, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). That rich spiritual legacy lives on through Chapman's focus on the development of the ethical, spiritual and intellectual person. A variety of religious studies courses and spiritual programming activities are offered, but not required. The dean of the chapel oversees an active interfaith program designed to meet the spiritual needs of the University's students, faculty and staff. A full–time director of church relations strengthens the University's covenant with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) as well as provides programs for the broader ecumenical community. As of 2010, Chapman University is also recognized by the United Church of Christ as a church–related school. Honoring this connection, there is a special student ministry and scholarship program for students from Disciples and United Church of Christ backgrounds. Both the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the United Church of Christ respect the many paths to God and strongly support Chapman's nurturing of students, faculty and staff of all faith backgrounds, as as those who are atheist or agnostic. (For more information about the Disciples and United Church of Christ program, go to www.chapman.edu/about/church-relations/index.aspx.
Believing that spirituality matters, the dean of the chapel supports a host of religious and spiritual groups including progressive and evangelical Protestants, Roman Catholics, Latter–day Saints, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Baha'is, Wiccans and those exploring meditation, health and healing and intersections between religion and other intellectual disciplines. New groups may be formed to support the interests and needs of the current student body. Major religious conferences and speakers are hosted each year. (For more information, visit www.chapman.edu/about/fish-interfaith-center/index.aspx.)
The beautiful Fish Interfaith Center houses the Wallace All Faiths Chapel, Wilkinson Founders Chapel, Yoder Sanctuary, Peterson Conference Room, The Fashionables Courtyard, Dee’s Garden of the Senses, a lounge, administrative offices and a columbarium. A team of internationally known architects and artists cooperated in the design of this inspirational and award–winning sacred space, which opened in 2004.
Chapman's academic year is on a 4–1–4 calendar. Fall classes begin in late August and end just prior to Christmas. An interterm session is held in January, offering special opportunities for students to participate in travel courses or take experimental courses. The course offerings in interterm, however, are limited. Students should not rely on interterm classes to fulfill their requirements. The spring semester begins at the end of January and ends in May. Four summer sessions are scheduled from the end of May through mid–August. Evening classes are also offered for working professionals. A special emphasis is made to meet the requirements of public school credentials.
The Leatherby Libraries opened in the fall semester, 2004. The five–story facility serves as an intellectual and cultural heart of the campus and is designed to meet the information needs of Chapman’s students, faculty and staff.
Our innovative library combines the latest information technology with the personalized attention that is the hallmark of a Chapman education. It includes nine individually named libraries with distinctive collections representing disciplinary areas of the University: arts and humanities, social sciences, science and technology, education, music, film and television and business and economics. In addition, two special libraries are located on floor four and are named the Frank Mt. Pleasant Library of Special Collections and Archives and the Sala and Aron Samueli Holocaust Memorial Library.
The facility features 14 group study rooms, six multi–media preview rooms, one multi–station music listening area, 92 computers for user access, wireless Internet access available throughout the building, six computer classrooms, a dedicated library instruction room, an extended–hour study commons and more than 800 seats at tables, carrels and lounge chairs.
The Leatherby Libraries’ collection contains approximately 519,000 titles including DVDs, videos, CDs and other media, 370 print journal titles, access to 75,000 plus full text electronic journals, 260 online databases and 160,000 electronic books, supporting the research and curricular needs of the campus community.
Interlibrary loan services are available to support the research needs of students and faculty by obtaining books and articles not held at Leatherby Libraries. Requests for materials from other libraries are easily submitted through ILLIAD, an online system that allows individuals to set up personalized accounts, submit their own requests and track outstanding requests.
The library instruction program is an important part of graduate and undergraduate programs, ensuring that students are connected to the information resources they need to succeed in their courses and become life–long learners.
Additionally, the library offers a range of lectures, exhibitions, permanent art and curriculum–related displays throughout the year.
A limited variety of online and hybrid courses is available. Using Blackboard, Chapman students and faculty have access to both online courses and on–campus courses that utilize this electronic tool, which enables document sharing, electronic discussion, Internet research and the use of other teaching and learning tools. Students and faculty alike also have access to the Chapman University Portal, My Chapman, which offers a variety of online services, including announcements, community discussion and personal services such as a calendar, e–mail, task lists, online grades and others, depending on the activities and Blackboard classes in which a student is enrolled.
Chapman University offers a wide range of lectures throughout the year by faculty members, visiting experts and thought leaders from all over the world. Past speakers have included Maya Angelou, Antonin Scalia, Ralph Nader, Edward James Olmos, Cornel West and Howard Zinn. Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel, a Distinguished Presidential Fellow, visits Chapman for one week each year to meet with students and present talks for the campus community and the public. Chapman's Holocaust Lecture Series, an annual event presented by the Rodgers Center for Holocaust Education, draws top experts from around the world. The John Fowles Literary Series offers readings and signings by top international novelists and poets.
The Guggenheim Art Gallery sponsors regular exhibitions by locally, nationally and internationally known artists as well as student shows. Chapman's acclaimed Escalette Permanent Collections of Art consists of paintings, prints, photographs and sculptures by many of the world's leading artists, from Rauschenberg and Miro to De Lap and Serra and is located in classroom buildings and public areas throughout the campus. The Hilbert Collection of California Art, opening soon, will display an array of paintings by some of California's leading representational artists, including Millard Sheets, Mary Blair, Emil Kosa Jr. and Milford Zornes.
The Hilbert Museum of California Art displays an array of painting by some of California's leading narrative and representational artists, including Millard Sheets, Mary Blair, Emil Kosa Jr. and Milford Zornes.
The 1,044–seat Marybelle and Sebastian P. Musco Center for the Arts, which opened in 2016, provides a stunning, state–of–the–art venue for Chapman student performances as well as top touring artists and ensembles.
Chapman's Hall–Musco Conservatory of Music and Departments of Theatre and Dance offer student and faculty performances year–round. Chapman's Dodge College of Film and Media Arts offers many screenings of popular movies, documentaries and international films, as well as presenting student and professional film festivals.
Students are encouraged to participate in a semester or academic year abroad. There are courses and programs to choose in all majors in almost every part of the world. Studying overseas provides a unique opportunity for fresh perspectives on international political, economic and social issues, interpersonal relationships and ultimate career choices. All regularly enrolled Chapman students with a minimum 3.000 GPA and at least a sophomore standing are eligible to participate. Many programs offered require no previous foreign language study. Students studying abroad through Chapman–approved programs are enrolled in a full course of study at the host institution and receive Chapman credit. Students are often pleasantly surprised to learn that the cost for studying abroad is comparable to the current cost of studying at Chapman. Most financial aid can apply depending on the program selected. The semester and academic year programs directly support Chapman's emphasis on encouraging students to recognize and develop their roles as global citizens in an increasingly interdependent world. When enrolled full–time, students who complete a semester or more abroad automatically satisfy the Global Study portion of the General Education program. Courses taken abroad can satisfy major, minor or applicable general education area requirements.
University wide and major–specific exchange programs bring international students to Chapman and allow Chapman students to fully integrate in a foreign university for a semester or academic year. Many universities have courses taught in English. There are opportunities for students to immerse themselves in language and culture programs. All regularly enrolled Chapman students with a minimum 3.000 GPA are eligible to apply. Typically, a student must have a junior standing to participate. Students studying abroad through Chapman–approved programs are enrolled in a full course of study at the host institution and receive Chapman credit.
Contact the Center for Global Education for more information or visit their website at www.chapman.edu/cge.
Chapman faculty representing a wide range of academic departments lead travel courses during the January interterm or summer session(s). Courses range from one to four weeks and may travel domestically or internationally. All students are encouraged to participate in these courses in order to gain a perspective about other countries and cultures. Credit is awarded for the academic work involved in the course. Students may be eligible for a tuition waiver for their participation in a travel program.
Contact the Center for Global Education for more information or visit their website at www.chapman.edu/cge.
Internships abroad allow students to gain cultural immersion and practical work experience. Both are extremely beneficial in today's global marketplace. These summer programs are viable options for students who are unable to participate in semester study abroad programs due to campus or academic commitments. All programs are open to juniors and seniors in any major with at least a 3.000 GPA. Students intern 8 to 10 weeks and earn three to six credits, which can fulfill the Global Study portion of the general education requirements. Students may be eligible for a tuition waiver for their participation in an international internship program.
Contact the Center for Global Education for more information or visit their website at www.chapman.edu/cge.
International Student and Scholar Services
International Student and Scholar Services serves the needs of international students and scholars on the Chapman University campus. The office acts primarily to issue visa application documents and to register recipients upon their arrival with the Department of Homeland Security. In addition, the office is a source of information and assistance to make the international student and scholar experience at Chapman as productive and meaningful as possible.
The office provides the following services: issuance of required immigration documents, student and scholar tracking and reporting as required by Student and Exchange Visitor program (SEVP) and Department or State, fall and spring orientation programs, assistance with personal matters, assistance with health insurance, internships, on–campus employment, tax and immigration matters, certificates of enrollment and official letters for foreign administration offices, information on social and cultural events and liaison with campus and community programs.
The Academic Advising Center guides and supports all undergraduate students in the development and achievement of their academic goals. The center provides advising services and resources for all incoming and continuing students and is specifically responsible for advising undeclared students and students on academic probation or subject to dismissal. Professional academic advisors offer general academic advising regarding degree requirements, University academic policies, the General Education program and overall academic planning, as well as language and mathematics placement testing services. Scheduled appointments and drop–in sessions are available, along with specific advising workshops and online advising when applicable.
The Tutoring, Learning and Testing Center (TLT) provides a variety of services to enhance learning and promote personal responsibility for student success and improve academic achievement. The Tutoring, Learning and Testing Center offers a variety of group supplemental instruction sessions conducted by outstanding peer leaders in courses students historically find most challenging. The Tutoring, Learning and Testing Center services also include limited individualized peer tutoring on an as needed and as available basis in many, but not all subjects taught at the University.
The Tutoring, Learning and Testing Center assists student Disability Services in proctoring examinations for students with prior approval for accommodated testing.
The beautiful, tree–lined 78–acre Chapman University campus in Orange, California is 35 miles southeast of Los Angeles, right in the heart of the exciting cultural and natural attraction attractions of Orange County, which has been rated "the number one place to live in North America" by Places Rated Almanac. World–renowned ocean beaches are less than 10 miles away, mountains and deserts are within an hour's drive and San Diego and Mexico are just 90 miles south. Just minutes from the University are acclaimed recreation and entertainment venues, including Disneyland, Segerstrom Center for the Arts, the Anaheim Convention Center, Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, Knott's Berry Farm, Angel Stadium and the Honda Center. The major attractions of Los Angeles, including the Getty Center, Walt Disney Concert Hall, L.A. County Museum of Art, the Hollywood Bowl and much more are within an hour to 90–minute drive.
Through arrangements with California State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB), Loyola Marymount University (LMU) in west Los Angeles and the University of Southern California (USC), students may participate in the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) Program. Aerospace studies classes and leadership laboratories are conducted at various times during the week on the main campuses of CSUSB, LMU and USC.
AFROTC offers a variety of two, three and four year scholarships, many of which pay the full cost of tuition, books and fees. Successful completion of as little as six (three years) semesters of AFROTC academic classes and leadership laboratories can lead to a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.
Classes consist of one hour of academics and two hours of laboratory for freshman and sophomores and three hours of academics and two hours of laboratory for juniors and seniors. All cadets must participate in two one–hour sessions of physical training. All curriculum is taught on Fridays. AFROTC cadets under scholarship and all juniors and seniors receive a monthly tax–free stipend and a textbook allowance. No military commitment is incurred until entering the last two years of the program (Professional Officer Course) or accepting an AFROTC scholarship.
For more information, contact the Department of Aerospace Studies (AFROTC) at one of the following universities: Cal State San Bernardino at (909) 537–5440, http://afrotc.csusb.edu/; Loyola Marymount University at (310) 338–2770, http://academics.lmu.edu/afrotc; USC at (213) 740–2670, http://www.usc.edu/dept/afrotc or visit www.afrotc.com for more information.
Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (AROTC) is also available to interested Orange campus Chapman students through arrangements with Cal Poly Pomona and the Claremont Colleges. Successful completion of the AROTC program leads to a commission as a second lieutenant in either the Army, the National Guard or the Army Reserve. For additional information, contact the Claremont Colleges at (909) 621–8102.
The California State University, Fullerton Army ROTC is a program designed to train and develop college students to become motivated U.S. Army leaders. ROTC provides students with the opportunity to gain a college degree while at the same time training to enter the army as a commissioned officer. Cal State Fullerton ROTC offers two, three and four year scholarships for qualified students to help provide financial assistance at Chapman University. For more information about eligibility requirements, scholarship opportunities and the overall program, please contact the enrollment advisor, Mr. Steven Yach, United States Army at Cal State Fullerton ROTC at (657) 278–3527 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.goarmy.com/rotc.html.
Tuition at Chapman is $48,310 per year. Room and board are approximately $14,472 per year. Books, supplies and student fees average $1,900 per year.
Chapman is committed to providing financial assistance to qualified students. More than 84 percent of our students receive some form of financial assistance. Additional information can be obtained from the Financial Aid Office or on the Chapman University website.
Chapman seeks and admits high–achieving students of varying geographic, social and ethnic backgrounds to create as diverse a student body as possible. Applications for admission should be submitted as early as possible during the academic year. For more details see Undergraduate Admission.
Chapman University is committed to providing an environment which is free of any form of harassment and discrimination based upon an individual's race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, gender, marital status, sexual orientation, age, disability, veteran status or any other classification protected by law, so that all members of the community are treated at all times with dignity and respect. It is the University's policy, therefore, to prohibit all forms of such harassment or discrimination among University faculty, students, staff and administration.
Chapman University is committed to making its educational opportunities accessible to qualified individuals with disabilities in accordance with applicable state and federal laws. By providing access to qualified students with disabilities, the University demonstrates its belief that the community will benefit from their skills and talents. In this regard, Chapman University has implemented the following policies:
The assistant director of Disability Services administers these policies. Summaries and references to these policies are provided in the University's application and admissions materials and its student handbook. Individuals can also obtain information about these policies, services, documentation requirements, etc. from Disability Services at (714) 516–4520.
Disability Services serves as the clearing house for all requested accommodations. It is the responsibility of the student requesting accommodations to make these needs known in a timely fashion and to provide proper documentation and medical evaluations as required (www.chapman.edu/disabilities). It is recommended that the student provide these materials prior to the beginning of the academic year or semester so that the University may better serve the student's needs and the student may avoid any irreversible academic consequences. Once notification has been made the University will engage in an interactive process in order to identify our obligation to provide reasonable accommodations. Services provided will be based on the individual needs of the student and may include extended test time, notetakers, etc. The granting of any accommodation will not be retroactive and cannot jeopardize the academic standards or integrity of the course.
Student and faculty research and programmatic opportunities are supported by the following endowments: