» Waste Management on Main Campus

In this chapter, various aspects of waste generated on main campus were analyzed:

  • Educational Signage
  • Sustainability education
  • Composting Services
  • Waste Stream Internalization


For more information, refer to Chapter 1  of the Audit, written by Marc Rosenfield, Sarah Thorson, Lauren Smith, and Julia Williams.

  • Paper Waste
  • Education and Behavior Change
  • Organics Recycling
  • Waste Transportation Services
  • Recycling Signage
  • As Chapman continues to grow it is essential that they develop a plan to mitigate paper usage in classrooms across campus. However, with improvement of current paper policies and increase use of the campus’ Learning Management System (BlackBoard) will help alleviate the on campus paper waste.

    • Results from the preliminary  2016 waste audits of Argyros Forum show that 43 percent of the recycled waste was paper, which was the largest portion of waste found. This depicts the need to implement a paper management system.
    • All of the public printers available on Chapman were set to double-sided printing in 2013 to reduce unnecessary paper waste. The University is also required to purchase 30% recycled paper.
    • BlackBoard, Chapman’s elearning system is fully capable of offering the tools needed to offer a paperless course. However, BlackBoard use is not mandatory and as of 2016 only an estimated 60% of faculty use the system. Increase use in Learning Management systems will reduce paper waste, increase communication, organized classrooms, and is accessible to all learners.
    • Colleges across campus have implemented paper policies, such as setting a printing limit and providing scanners, however there is no consistency.
    • During the 2015-2016 school year, both IS&T and facilities has spent an estimated $30,100. By reducing paper, this money can be reallocated to providing online resources to students and faculty.

    library paper waste

    Table 1.3. Library public printer (11 printers) usage by year broken down by the number of jobs the printers receive and the number of sheets printed. (Aug 1st-Aug 1st)



    library paper waste

    Figure 1.16. Average paper waste per floor in lbs. This is an average between the first and second waste audit conducted in Argyros Forum in Spring 2016, showing that the waste increases in areas with large faculty/staff presence.

    • The goal of this audit is to identify ways to reduce waste on campus through a combination of education, action, empowerment and accessibility.
    • Traditional information intensive environmental education has been unsuccessful in inducing sustainable behavior. There are a variety of factors that influence a person's behavior that must also be considered in the educational process. (Hungerford & Volk, 1990).
    •  Using Hines model, each factor that affects responsible environmental behavior was studied at Chapman and strategies that target each factor were recommended with the goal of improving diversion rates and reducing waste.

    hines model

    A primary waste audit showed many items were being misplaced in recycling and waste bins.  The secondary waste audit was conducted after the implementation of educational signage. There was no improvement, showing recycling habits may be largely behavioral.

    percent by weight

    Without considering individual sections, in 2015/16 there were 56 environmental and sustainability themed courses at Chapman, offering environmental education for approximately 1,400 students; 22 percent of the student population

    number of courses offered

    Recommendations include:  

    • Sustainability trainings and education for faculty and students during orientations
    • Adding a GE sustainability course
    • Adding stewardship opportunities to Chapman Day of Service and Greek Day of Service
  • Providing compost bins on campus allows Chapman University to decrease the amount of waste sent to landfill, and can potentially save the university money in the form of reduced pickup costs.

    total af waste

    Figure 1.4 Total composition of all waste produced in Argyros Forum over 48 cumulative hours.


    • 52% of all waste discarded in Argyros Forum within 48 hours was compostable material.
    • If compost services were provided and used properly, the university could significantly reduce landfill waste generation on main campus.
    • Organic waste can be removed from Chapman’s landfill waste stream by processing it through the EnviroPure digester in Randall Dining Commons. 

    af waste by floor

    Figure 1.5. Total composition of all waste produced in Argyros Forum, separated by floor. 


    • Compostable material was the largest portion of waste produced on each floor of Argyros Forum.
    • Composting efforts therefore greatly reduce waste on each floor of the building. Results of providing compost services are likely to be similar in other building on main campus.
  • cost breakdown
    • A cost-benefit analysis was made to assess the possibility of internalizing the waste transportation process at Chapman University.
    • Assessments were made by differentiating initial investments; purchasing patterns of buying a new truck, buying a used truck, and leasing a truck were analyzed separately.

    waste collection options

    Figure 1.6. Various waste collection options (buying waste trucks new, used, or leasing) compared to the University’s current waste collection plan.


    • When waste internalization costs were compared to the current system of waste disposal, all efforts were more cost effective than the current plan.
    • Analysis revealed that the most cost effective option was investment in a used truck.
    • Purchasing our own trucks would allow the university to analyze yearly waste production rates which are not available through the current waste transportation plan
  • improper waste disposal

    Figure 1.7. Breakdown of the amount of waste improperly disposed of in the primary AF audit; percentage of landfill waste that was recyclable and percentage of waste in recycling that was not recyclable.


    • Roughly 25% of waste was improperly sorted during the waste audits conducted in Spring 2016
    • 97% of respondents to the 2016 Environmental Audit Survey said that educational signage would improve their ability to properly sort waste
    • The cost of producing signs for each small bin in classrooms and offices is estimated at $345
    • Signs can be installed by the facilities staff during the summer months
    • Additional recycling bins should be purchased and better records should be maintained regarding numbers and placement of bins in classrooms and offices.